Since 2005, crude oil shipments by railways have risen by more than 400 percent. The increase is largely because of the boom in shale oil production in the U.S. and Canada. Concerns about recent accidents led the National Transportation Safety Board last week to call for stricter rail standards. The head of the NTSB, Deborah Hersman, said safety rules need to catch up with the new reality of large-scale oil shipments. Hersman also said, “the people and the environment along rail corridors must be protected from harm.” What new rail safety rules could mean for industry, population centers and the Keystone XL Pipeline.